The calendar year is almost over, and if you’re saving for retirement with an IRA, there are several smart moves you can make before the end of 2019.
Contribute the maximum amount
For the first time since 2013, the cap on the annual contribution to a traditional IRA has been increased $500 to a maximum of $6,000 for contributors younger than 50. Those age 50 and older are allowed to contribute an additional $1,000 as a “catch up,” bringing their total allowable IRA contribution to $7,000.
To contribute to an IRA, you must have earned income from work, and you cannot contribute more to an IRA than you earned. IRA contributions in 2019 are tax-deductible, and if you or your spouse do not have a 401(k) or other work retirement account, you can deduct your entire 2019 IRA contribution on your tax return. Make your 2019 contribution before the next tax filing deadline passes on April 15, 2020.
If required, take your minimum distribution
If you are age 70 ½ or older, you typically are required to take a minimum distribution, or RMD, from your IRA. Figuring out the amount of your RMD, however, can be difficult, and it’s best to go over your retirement account with a financial expert before taking any distributions (errors can be expensive). The amount of your distribution depends on your life expectancy and how much your IRA is worth – the IRS calculates it by dividing your IRA balance on the last day of 2018 by your life expectancy or the applicable distribution period.
You’ll be penalized 50 percent if you miss your RMD, a significant penalty for a retirement account. If you don’t need the money from an RMD but have to take it, you can donate the disbursement to a charitable cause through a qualified charitable distribution (QCD). In this case, the donation will go straight from your IRA to a qualified charity of your choice, and it will not be counted as personal income. QCDs are limited to $100,000 each year.
Review your assets
December is a great time for a year-end review of your investment policy statement (IPS). This document lays out how much of your money should be in cash, bonds, and stock, and when each category will rebalance. At the end of the year, you can evaluate whether your investments match the allocations on your IPS. If they don’t, which is likely, you may want to rebalance your account.
Financial experts recommend creating an IPS before the end of the year if you don’t have one. While it’s ideal to create your IPS in a calm market, if that’s not possible, make one right away, no matter the market conditions.
Avoid taxes on distributions
One significant downside of a traditional IRA is that distributions can be taxed and converting to a Roth account can eliminate some of these potential losses. Also, investors who donate their RMD to a qualifying charity or use the disbursement to buy a qualifying longevity annuity contract also can avoid disbursement taxes.
Converting to a Roth IRA may be an especially wise choice in years when your taxable income is low. The taxes you pay in a slow year will set a baseline for you to make good choices when your taxes could be higher. Investors between ages 59 ½ and 70 ½ likely won’t benefit from a Roth IRA conversion, however, as they aren’t required to take RMDs.
If you inherited a traditional IRA in 2019, you must take the RMD by the end of 2019 and pay the taxes on it – even if you are younger than 70 ½.
Don’t overdo it
While saving for retirement is generally encouraged, can you contribute too much to an IRA? Yes, and there are consequences. For example, if your income is better than usual for one year, and you make a large contribution to your IRA, you may have to pay a 6 percent penalty on your extra contributions until you fix the error. If you have over-contributed, there are remedies:
- Withdraw the excess contributions before April 15, 2020.
- If your tax return already is on its way to the IRS, you can remove the extra contribution and send in an amended tax return by the deadline in October.
- If you apply the extra contribution amount to 2020, you will still have to pay the 6 percent penalty on it for 2019, but you’ll get a “head start” on next year’s contribution.
While these are fixes, the best approach is to not make excess contributions at all.
Looking forward, IRA contribution rules will not change in 2020 – the maximums will remain at $6,000 and $7,000, depending on your age, for combined contributions to Roth and traditional IRAs. The window for 2020 contributions begins Jan. 1 and ends April 15, 2021.
The family office has served as an integral part of wealth management since ancient times, although the modern form of the family office was born in the late 19th century with the Rockefellers. In 1882, John D. Rockefeller created an office to organize his many lines of business and oversee his family’s investments; this office managed the Rockefeller wealth as an investment portfolio, rather than individual businesses. Though this setup was never described as a “family office,” it’s similar to the concept today. In essence, a family office is an organization, typically made up of financial professionals, who help wealthy clients and their families manage their money and make sound decisions about their investments and financial futures.
In 2020, according to a recent Forbes report, the idea of the family office will continue to evolve and grow in response to cultural, economic, and financial trends. This structure still will help individuals and families build and preserve legacies, amass inheritances, and protect family businesses. However, many family office providers will need to rethink think their structures and purposes in response to a changing world, according to Forbes.
Here are six trends that will affect the family office in 2020.
Family offices already are preparing for a recession, according to Forbes. A UBS Campden Wealth Family Office Report published this year notes that more than 50 percent of family offices are prioritizing increasing their cash reserves, mitigating risk, and taking advantage of opportunistic events. Almost half of the family offices surveyed are also increasing their contributions to direct private equity investments, while 42 percent are prioritizing private equity funds and 34 percent are investing more in real estate.
Transitioning family businesses
Many families now are selling their established businesses or buying other family businesses, while others are moving from managing companies to managing large wealth portfolios. This trend is increasing the need for family offices, as families seek to preserve their wealth and legacies for future generations, according to Forbes. Family offices are providing support and structure for wealthy families transitioning into new stages of wealth management.
Advances in technology and changes in global economic patterns have created a new phase in globalization that some experts are calling “Globalization 4.0.” Trade in the global south is growing quickly, and the developing world is playing a greater role in international trade flows. In addition, automation, artificial intelligence, Big Data, the Internet of Things, and other paradigm-shifting technologies are impacting markets and trade, giving rise to a trend that’s seeing more products made locally, close to their consumer markets. For family offices, this shift can force rethinking about where individuals and families want their holdings located and how they will structure their governance.
New family office structures
Wealth is shifting as the number of billionaires worldwide declined by around 5% amid market changes and slowing economies. However, more family offices are being created, according to Forbes, as businesspeople who started companies in the 1990s sell and tech entrepreneurs are preparing to put their companies on the market. Much of this influx of wealth will be invested, and for individuals and families, a family office can be an excellent structure to manage assets and chart a financial future.
How will this impact family offices? This influx of investors looks different from previous generations. Instead of a single or multi-family office, investors are looking for new structures, such as virtual and private multi-family offices or on-demand resources. The sharing economy has also made its way to the family office, as some investors now are interested in pooling their resources with other families to open more investment opportunities.
Prioritizing other risks
Family offices now are increasingly factoring in non-financial risks when making decisions about their investments. Climate risk, for example, is now part of the World Bank’s risk management strategy. Since the publication of the Panama Papers, which exposed the innerworkings of some family offices’ investments, the threats to an individual’s or family’s reputation is more frequently considered when assessing risk. Another important factor is the risk surrounding succession, which fails two-thirds of the time. According to Forbes, half of family offices do not have a succession plan. This is clearly a risk that more family offices will need to prioritize.
The role of banks and financial advisors has diminished as digitization has given family office holders more access to systems and information. Often, family office members can manage their own investments and transactions, which can give them complete control over how their portfolio grows.
Digitization also is affecting wealth management services that work with family offices. Families are demonstrating growing concerns about the security of their information and are asking for greater access to their transactions and portfolios. To meet these demands, wealth management services must increasingly utilize software and other digital tools to store data in a centralized, accessible location. They must also provide regular, open communication with clients, as well as more tailored, customized solutions.
Long-term care insurance, which covers the cost of nursing homes, in-home care, and assisted living, can help tremendously if such a need arises when you retire. According to the AARP, out-of-pocket costs for long-term care average $140,000 (and these types of expenses typically aren’t covered by Medicaid), and by the time you reach the age of 65, there is about a 50-50 chance that you’ll have to pay for long-term care at some point. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has stated that 70 percent of people who are turning 65 will need long-term care.
Why, then, do so few people not plan for their long-term health care needs? Only about 7.2 million Americans have long-term care insurance, according to the AARP, and for many people, it’s a problem that they aren’t prepared to handle. Long-term care insurance policies can be costly, and the premiums typically become more expensive as you grow older. When you’re still relatively young and healthy, the need seems less pressing. As a result, long-term care insurance can be an easy expense to postpone. Here’s why you need, at minimum, a plan for financially managing long-term care issues, even if you’re perfectly healthy right now.
Assess Your Situation
First, it’s helpful to look at your life circumstances. Do dementia or other debilitating diseases run in your family? If that’s the case, you may need assisted care later in life. Consider how you’d pay for this care. Will your savings cover it? Would your children be able to help? Could you use your home equity? In some situations, financial advisors say that you could comfortably do without long-term care insurance, such as if you are using less than 4 percent of your savings for annual living expenses. If you have few assets, then you may qualify for Medicaid.
However, most people will eventually have to face the reality of how to cover long-term care. According to LifePlans, an industry research firm, long-term care insurance premiums cost an average of $2,700 a year. The average stay in a nursing home is about two-and-a-half years, and prices tend to increase each year. Genworth Financial has tracked the price of care for 16 years, and its 2019 data shows that the costs for assisted-living facilities and in-home care have increased, on average, between 1.71 percent and 3.64 percent each year since 2004, an increase that’s often greater than the U.S. inflation rate. For in-home care, that’s an average increase of $892 each year, and for a private room in a nursing home, it’s an increase of about $2,468 annually.
Benefits of Long-Term Care Insurance
Some believe that Medicare will pay for long-term care, but this coverage typically only covers short-term nursing home care or a percentage of at-home care costs. Additionally, patients must be in specific situations in order to qualify for this type of care. Most of the time, families must pay for the care themselves. This is why long-term care can be so valuable, as it covers the cost of residential or in-home care, regardless of the diagnosis. Premiums are based on how much coverage the policy holder would like to have on a daily basis. Policies are typically available from private insurance companies or through employer-sponsored insurance plans. Some companies offer their employees group long-term insurance plans, which are often cheaper. One drawback is that once you no longer have a job, then you lose the insurance plan.
If you do want long-term care insurance, it’s never too early to purchase it. Waiting until you are sick or older may seemingly save you money in terms of the premiums. However, your age and health can work against you if you try to purchase coverage late in life. Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, metastic cancer, dementia, and Parkinson’s disease—all progressive health conditions—are often reasons why applicants are not approved for long-term care insurance. In 2010 (when the most recent data became available, according to the American Association of Long-Term Care Insurance website), 23 percent of people in their 60s who applied for long-term care insurance were rejected, and 14 percent of applicants in their 50s were declined. According to the American Association of Long-Term Care Insurance, the prime time to apply for long-term care insurance is when you are in your mid-50s.
Considerations to Keep in Mind
In addition, there are some considerations to keep in mind if you’re thinking about purchasing long-term care insurance. The number of carriers offering long-term care has shrunk significantly. According to one expert, 10 years ago more than 100 insurance companies offered long-term care policies; now, only about 12 do so. Questions remain about how much longer these policies will be available, even for those who have already purchased them.
If you’re in “The Big Middle,” a term that SCAN Foundation Chief Bruce Chernof coined for those who are not wealthy enough to pay their own long-term care costs and not poor enough to qualify for Medicaid, the choice remains about whether to invest in long-term care insurance.
Financial decisions in our youth can be simple. How much can I afford to pay in rent? Should I budget for two meals out a week or four? What amount of car payment can I afford?
As we get older, however, our finances—and our financial decisions—can become more complex. As we accumulate wealth and begin thinking about the financial side of issues such as retirement, second homes, and leaving an inheritance, most of us could use some guidance. That’s where wealth management comes in.
What is wealth management?
Wealth management is an individualized financial planning service for highly affluent clients. These individuals work with either a single wealth manager or a financial advising team that provides comprehensive services and has expertise in a wide range of financial services and products.
What is a wealth manager?
Serving as personal consultants, wealth managers focus on issues that affect extremely wealthy clients, such as managing estate tax rules. They spend time getting to know their clients, including their financial and life priorities.
Along with answering questions and meeting with their clients, wealth managers often coordinate legal and accounting services for them as well. Wealth managers help clients with all financial planning needs, whether it’s setting up a trust for your grandchildren or working through how tax rules impact your business’s income.
Wealth managers provide across-the-board financial services, working with clients on all aspects of their financial holdings and decisions. Clients looking for a single service, such as help with retirement planning, may find it is more efficient to work with a financial planner who offers a la carte services. Similarly, individuals who are interested in guidance creating an investment strategy may want to consider a portfolio manager, who will offer advice on maximizing returns and minimizing risk but won’t provide additional financial services.
Wealth managers provide many services. These include estate and tax planning; accounting; retirement planning; providing legal guidance on finance-related matters; offering investment management and advice; setting up trusts and foundations; creating a plan for charitable giving; engaging in risk management; and planning for Social Security benefits.
Your initial meetings with a wealth manager may be more conversational as you talk through your personal and financial goals. A wealth manager will need to be familiar with the entirety of your finances as well as your financial history, hopes and plans for your future, and the legacy you want to leave. Using all this information, a wealth manager will craft a financial strategy that will meet all of your goals.
How do I find a wealth manager?
Generally, there are two types of wealth managers. Large firms such as Merrill and Morgan Stanley offer wealth management experts along with banking and other types of financial services. Smaller independent firms, on the other hand, may provide a more personalized experience.
Either way, you’ll want to make sure that the wealth manager you choose is certified. Only one certification specific to wealth management, the certified private wealth advisor (CPWA) is available.
Financial advisors with this certificate are qualified to work with clients whose net worth is at least $5 million. The certified financial planner (CFP) and chartered financial analyst (CFP) certify a professional in general financial planning practices and are valuable certifications for wealth managers.
You can start looking for a local wealth manager through online search. This should provide information about large financial institutions and small private firms in your area. You also could ask around. Word of mouth can be a valuable tool in finding a qualified professional that others— especially peers who have similar levels of wealth and financial situations—recommend.
The cost of wealth management services typically is based on a percentage of the client’s assets that are being managed. That means the more financial assets you have, the higher your fees will be. Firms may also add other charges—Morgan Stanley, for example, charges fixed fees for specific accounts and services. It’s important to talk to your wealth management advisor about their rates and fees before agreeing to work together.
What if I prefer online services?
If you’re more comfortable behind a computer screen, many financial institutions offer wealth management service online—although you’ll lose the personal touch of face-to-face meetings. Meetings can be moved to the phone or a video conference while much of the financial information is provided online.
Some online services offer unlimited access to a human financial provider or team of providers for a flat annual fee that’s determined by the services you need and how complicated your financial needs are. Other services calculate fees based on a percentage of your assets. The downsides for some of these services, especially when they offer a team approach, is that you may not consistently work with the same financial adviser.
Regardless of the criteria you use to select a wealth management service, it’s vital to think through your needs and research your options thoroughly. You have spent a lifetime building up your wealth. Your financial decisions often will impact your family for decades or more to come. This means it is important to work with a qualified wealth manager who takes the time to understand your financial situation and long-term goals.
The two basic types of retirement accounts are the 401(k) and the individual retirement account (IRA). While it is easy to confuse the two, they are actually quite different. While a 401(k) is an employee-sponsored account, anyone can open an IRA. This makes it an important product for people who do not have access to a 401(k) or who have already maxed out contributions to that account.
Unfortunately, the contribution limits for an IRA are significantly less than for a 401(k). However, they remain extremely important vehicles for retirement savings because of their tax advantages. An IRA is a way for the government to incentivize retirement savings outside of the employee-sponsored account.
The Various IRA Options Available Today
To open an IRA, individuals only need income from a job that is claimed for tax purposes, which rules out income from Social Security or an investment. When opening an IRA, individuals need to choose between a traditional and a Roth account. Like a 401(k), an IRA comes with certain tax benefits.
With a traditional account, individuals can contribute to the IRA and avoid paying any taxes on those contributions. However, when money is withdrawn from the account, it is taxed at that time. A Roth account involves investment of taxed income. Later, withdrawals can be made without paying any taxes, provided that individuals do not touch the account until they are at least 59.5 years old.
Some forms of specialty IRAs exist. For example, a simplified employee pension (SEP) IRA is geared for small-business owners and self-employed individuals. These accounts operate much like other IRAs except that they have much higher contribution limits.
Small-business owners are required to contribute the same rate to eligible employee accounts and their own. In other words, if the owner saves 10 percent of compensation, 10 percent of an employee’s compensation must also be saved. Employees cannot contribute directly to their own SEP IRA.
Another product is the Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) IRA. This product is designed for companies with 100 or fewer employees. A SIMPLE IRA is easy to set up and allows employees to contribute to their own accounts.
Questions to Think about When Opening an IRA
Individuals can open IRAs through most financial service providers, from banks and credit unions to brokerage firms. Different service providers offer various advantages and disadvantages, so it is important to do some homework before opening an account.
Ideally, the financial institution provides individuals with a wide range of resources, from online education materials to in-person meetings, to help guide choices. These resources can help individuals plan for the future. Also, different providers will charge different types of fees. While some companies charge monthly fees, others have customers pay per trade.
Sometimes, companies will charge both monthly and trading fees, so it is important to understand the full payment scheme. Otherwise, individuals may end up paying a lot more for the service than they originally intend. It is also important to figure out what types of investments can be held in the account.
The point of opening an IRA is to invest money for retirement and have it grow over time. As a result, the exact investment options tend to matter quite a bit—especially for people who like to play an active role in investing decisions. People who prefer a more passive approach to investing should consider the possibility that they may want to get more actively involved in the future.
The Basics of Investing in an IRA
When it comes to investing money through an IRA, people need to consider the tradeoff between risk and return. An IRA should be viewed as a long-term investment. Generally, individuals will use an IRA to invest in stocks, especially if they are more than a decade away from retirement.
The stock market involves more risk, but it also usually yields higher returns than products like a certificate of deposit or a Treasury bond. While it is highly unlikely to lose money with these safe investments, individuals will also not earn much money. Different service providers may have some guidance to offer about how to navigate the creation of an effective portfolio. However, it is important that customers not feel pressured.
Alternately, individuals may want to take a fairly hands-off approach to investing in an IRA. In these cases, they may choose something like a total market index fund, which provides access to the kind of diversity needed to mitigate much of the risk involved in the stock market. These funds choose investments from a range of different geographic locations and across a number of different industries.
Individuals would struggle to obtain such diversification alone, even if investing very large sums of money. This option is for people who are willing to leave their money in accounts for long-term gains without the need to micromanage it. Another option for people who prefer a hands-off approach is a robo-advisor. This service will select investments based on the investor’s preferred cost and risk profile.